Vernoia, Enterline + Brewer, CPA LLC

Posts tagged ‘withholding’

Retirees: Avoid a surprise tax bill


With tax reform bringing major changes for the year ahead, the Internal Revenue Service today urged retirees to make sure they are paying in enough tax during the year by using the Withholding Calculator, available on (more…)

Seasonal, Part-year Workers Urged to Check Tax Withholding Amount

The Internal Revenue Service today encouraged taxpayers who work seasonal jobs or are employed part of the year to visit the Withholding Calculator and perform a “paycheck checkup.” (more…)

Get an Early Tax Refund by Adjusting Your Withholding

Each year, millions of taxpayers claim an income tax refund. To be sure, receiving a payment from the IRS for a few thousand dollars can be a pleasant influx of cash. But it means you were essentially giving the government an interest-free loan for close to a year, which isn’t the best use of your money. (more…)

How do I? Compute withholding using the part-year employment method

Employers generally withhold from wages by way of the wage-bracket or percentage method (Code Sec. 3402(b) and Code Sec. 3402(c)). However, an employee may request that the amount of tax withheld by the employer from the employee’s wages be computed on the basis of the part-year employment method (Reg. §31.3402(h)(4)-1(c)(1)). Under this method, an individual who is employed no more than 245 days in the aggregate during a calendar year may request that the employer withhold on the basis of the part-year employment method to prevent overwithholding. Under this method, the amount of tax to be withheld is determined as if the wages paid to a part-year employee were spread evenly over the calendar year, whether or not the employee actually was employed during all of that period.

An employee’s request that withholding be based on the part-year employment method must be in writing and in the form that the employer requires. The request must be sworn and must contain the following information:

  • the last day of employment, if any, by any employer prior to the current term of continuous employment during the calendar year in which that term commenced;
  • a statement that the employee reasonably anticipates being employed for an aggregate of not more than 245 days in all terms of continuous employment during the current calendar year; and
  • a statement that the employee uses a calendar-year accounting period.

There is no specified due date for an employee’s election to withhold using the part-year method. A request by the employee furnished to the employer in proper form may be acted upon by the employer for wages paid after the furnishing of the request. It is effective only for the calendar year in which it is furnished to the employer. The request is not effective for wages paid on or after the beginning of the payroll period during which the current calendar year will end.

How do I . . . Change my tax withholding?

An employer must withhold income taxes from compensation paid to common-law employees (but not from compensation paid to independent contractors). The amount withheld from an employee’s wages is determined in part by the number of withholding exemptions and allowances the employee claims. Note that although the Tax Code and regulations distinguish between “withholding exemptions” and “withholding allowances,” the terms are interchangeable. The amount of reduction attributable to one withholding allowance is the same as that attributable to one withholding exemption. Form W-4 and most informal IRS publications refer to both as withholding allowances, probably to avoid confusion with the complete exemption from withholding for employees with no tax liability.

An employee may change the number of withholding exemptions and/or allowances she claims on Form W-4, Employee’s Withholding Allowance Certificate. It is generally advisable for an employee to change his or her withholding so that it matches his or her projected federal tax liability as closely as possible. If an employer overwithholds through Form W-4 instructions, then the employee has essentially provided the IRS with an interest-free loan. If, on the other hand, the employer underwithholds, the employee could be liable for a large income tax bill at the end of the year, as well as interest and potential penalties.

How allowances affect withholding

For each exemption or allowance claimed, an amount equal to one personal exemption, prorated to the payroll period, is subtracted from the total amount of wages paid. This reduced amount, rather than the total wage amount, is subject to withholding. In other words, the personal exemption amount is $4,000 for 2015, meaning the prorated exemption amount for an employee receiving a biweekly paycheck is $153.85 ($4,000 divided by 26 paychecks per year) for 2015.

In addition, if an employee’s expected income when offset by deductions and credits is low enough so that the employee will not have any income tax liability for the year, the employee may be able to claim a complete exemption from withholding.

Changing the amount withheld

Taxpayers may change the number of withholding allowances they claim based on their estimated and anticipated deductions, credits, and losses for the year.  For example, an employee who anticipates claiming a large number of itemized deductions and tax credits may wish to claim additional withholding allowances if the current number of withholding exemptions he is currently claiming for the year is too low and would result in overwithholding.

Withholding allowances are claimed on Form W-4, Employee’s Withholding Allowance Certificate, with the withholding exemptions. An employer should have a Form W-4 on file for each employee. New employees generally must complete Form W-4 for their employer. Existing employees may update that Form W-4 at any time during the year, and should be encouraged to do so as early as possible in 2015 if they either owed significant taxes or received a large refund when filing their 2014 tax return.

The IRS provides an IRS Withholding Calculator at that can help individuals to determine how many withholding allowances to claim on their Forms-W-4. In the alternative, employees can use the worksheets and tables that accompany the Form W-4 to compute the appropriate number of allowances.

Employers should note that a Form W-4 remains in effect until an employee provides a new one. If an employee does update her Form W-4, the employer should not adjust withholding for pay periods before the effective date of the new form. If an employee provides the employer with a Form W-4 that replaces an existing Form W-4, the employer should begin to withhold in accordance with the new Form W-4 no later than the start of the first payroll period ending on or after the 30th day from the date on which the employer received the replacement Form W-4.